## Introduction

Quantum computing refers to a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics. It is highly theoretical at the current state of research and has potential for computing power beyond classical computers. Such as superposition and entanglement to perform operations on data. It is digital computers that require data to be encoded into binary digits. Each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits qubits, which can be in a superposition of states. Each qubit is connected to its quantum random access memory(Quran). quRAM acts like conventional RAM and stores the quantum nature of the information. In reality, the experiment starts with the qubits detuned from other components then the information is loaded before adjusting the working frequency of cubits. Though it is still a challenge to build a practical quantum computer, for now, this can still lead to the future development of the quantum computer. It is a good combination of physics, mathematics, computer science, and information theory. This information helps us in understanding the possible challenges in developing exotic and competitive technology. And it will also give us an insight into the ongoing process in this field.

## History of Quantum computing

It begins in 1980 when physicist Paul Bennie Benioff proposed a quantum mechanical model of the Turing machine, based on the laws of quantum mechanics instead of the laws of classical physics. Yuri Manin or Richard Feynman’s letter suggested that a quantum computer is the potential to stimulate things like a classical computer. In 1994, Peter Shor developed his algorithm allowing quantum computers to efficiently factorize large integers, these are quicker than the best classical algorithm on traditional machines. The short algorithm is capable of breaking many of the cryptosystems used today. The possibility to break into cryptosystems in hours rather than millions of years using quantum computers lit a fire of interest for quantum computing or its application. In 1996, Lov Grover invented a quantum database search algorithm that presented a quadratic speedup for a variety of problems. Any problem which had to be solved by random or brute force search could now be done 4xfaster. In 1998, a working 2-qubit quantum computer was built and solved the first quantum algorithms such as Grover’s algorithm, the race into a new era of computer power begin and more applications were developed. In 2017, IBM presented the first commercially usable counter-computer, raising the race to another level. On 23 October 2019, google AI, in partnership with the U.S. national aeronautics and space administration, claimed to have performed a quantum computation.

## How does quantum computing work?

The operations in street use the quantum state of an object to produce what’s known as a cubit. These states are the undefined properties of an object before they have been detected, Rather than having a clear position on measured quantum states occur in a mixed superposition, not unlike a coin spinning through the air before it lands in your hand. These superpositions can be entangled with those of other objects, meaning their outcomes will be mathematically related even if we don’t know what they are. Search algorithms would be useful in solving complex mathematical problems, and producing hard-to-break security courts. or predicting multiple particle interactions in chemical reactions. It can represent both zero and one as well as everything in between at the same time. Qubits can be carried as atoms, ions, photons, or electrons, and their respective control devices. That is working together to act as computer memory and processor.

**Turing machine- ** Theoretical devices that consist of tape of unlimited length that is divided into little squares, each square can either hold a symbol (1or 0) or be left blank. 1 and 0 are carried and turned on by states of electrical current.

## Types of Quantum computing

**1-Quantum Annealer- **The quantum engineer is the least powerful and most restrictive form of quantum computer. It is easiest to build, yet can only perform one specific function. The scientific community’s consensus is that quantum annealer has no known advantages over conventional computing.

**2-Analog quantum- **The analog quantum computer will be able to simulate complex quantum interactions that are intractable for any known conventional machine or combinations of these machines. It is conjectured that the analog quantum computer will contain somewhere between 50 to 100 qubits.

**3-Universal quantum-** The universal quantum computer is the most powerful, the most general, and the hardest to build, posing several difficult technical challenges. current estimates indicate that this machine will comprise more than 100,000 physical qubits. Problems are broken down into primitive operations, Digital outcomes for certain input states, and Much more similar concepts to classical computers.

## Advantages of Quantum Computing

**1-Solve complex problems-** The more complex a problem, the harder it is for even a supercomputer to solve. When a classical computer fails, it’s usually because of a huge degree of complexity and many interacting variables. With the concepts of superposition and entanglement, quantum computers can account for all these variables and complexities to reach a solution.

**2- It can run complex simulations-** The speed and complexity that quantum computing can achieve means that, in theory, a quantum computer could simulate many intricate systems, allowing us to better understand some of life’s great mysteries.

**3- It is fast-** Quantum computers have the potential to provide computational power on a scale that traditional computers cannot ever match. but all the tasks cannot be done better by quantum computing when compared to a traditional computer.

**4- High privacy – **These computers can make high encryption and is good at cryptography. It is impossible to break the security of quantum computers. In recent days China has launched a satellite that uses quantum computing and China claimed that this satellite cannot be hacked. It is required less power. In this computing, less power consumption and requires less cost so it is beneficial and the work process is fast.

**5- Fast and accurate-** The other advantage of quantum computing is that it can execute any task faster and more accurately than a classical computer. the atom changes very faster in the case of traditional computing whereas in quantum computing it changes even faster.

**6-Google search- **These computers are used by Google to refine searches. Now every search on google can speed up by using these computers. most relevant results can be populated using this computing.

## Disadvantages of quantum computing

1- Qubits are not digital bits of the day thus they cannot use as conventional error correction and it is the technology required to implement a quantum computer that is not available at present days.

2- The minimum energy requirement for quantum logical operations is five times that of classical computers or quantum CPUs will have efficiency and heating problems of their own. when a measurement of any type is made to a quantum system, decoherence is broken down and the wave function collapses into a single state.

3- Research for this problem is continuing the effort applied to identify a solution for this problem that has no positive progress. This is the lowest temperature of the universe and it is very difficult to maintain that temperature.

4- The high range price they are not available for public use. so the errors in these types of computers are high because they are still in the development phase. The accuracy is not right. There are experiments already going on to make the results of these computers precise.

5- It is assumed by scientists that if a quantum computer is implemented in the best way then whole internet security breaks. The fact is that these computers can decrypt all the codes on the internet.

6- It needs to write a new algorithm, quantum computers cannot work with classical computers, they need special algorithms to perform tasks in their environment.

## Conclusion

Quantum computers are based on enacting quantum operations on qubits. quantum operations are simply unitary operators in the Hilbert space of the system and QCs are still many years off; however, they will fundamentally change computation as we know it Qbits can also be employed in generating an undefeatable cryptography scheme which may prove useful once RSA encryption is defeated by QCs. Quantum mechanics is a science and very small. I believe that quantum computing is an excellent idea and will be the computing of the future. but scientists still have some problems to work out. We can see that quantum concepts ha aa wide range of applications in different types of diodes, even computers as well as other devices like Josephson junction and MRI. no in years we can explain even further breakthroughs the semiconductor technology and see the growth of quantum computers which may later run themselves.

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