The full form of IoT is the internet of things, it is connecting any device to the internet via a switch or control. It includes connecting from cell phones, headphones, washing machines, coffee makers, lamps, wearable devices, and more. IoT can also apply to machines’ components like the jet engine of an airplane or the drill of an oil rig. IoT’s giant network of connected “things” also includes people and it is creating new relationships: people- to- people, people-to-things, and things-to-things.
It is a system of interrelated computing devices mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals, or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. A thing in the IoT can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low, or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and can transfer data over a network. It is a sensor network of billions of smart devices that connect people, systems, and other applications to collect and share data.
History of IoT
The Internet of Things has not been around that long it was only in 1999 that the term “Internet of Things” was first coined by Kevin Ashton. He used the phrase as the title of his presentation for a new sensor project he was working on and start from there, the phrase came about in 1999, and the concept of connected devices dates back to 1832. The first electromagnetic Telegraph was designed to allow direct communication between two machines through the transfer of electrical signals then IoT history began with the invention of the Internet in the late 1960s. The world’s first IoT device was invented in the early 1980s at Carnegie Melon University. The group of students from the university created a way to get their campus Coca Cola vending machine and then report on its contents through the network to save them then the machine was out of coke so they installed microswitches into the machine to report on how many coke cans were available or if they were cold. John Romney connected a toaster to the Internet for the first time in 1990, and a group of students at the University of Cambridge used a web camera to report on coffee. Luke came up with the idea to use the first web camera prototype to monitor the amount of coffee available in their computer labs coffee pot the photos were then sent to local computers so everyone could see if there was coffee available. The Internet of Things is simply the point in time when more things or objects were connected to the Internet and people Cisco Systems estimated that the IoT was born between 2008 and 2009, with the things or people ratio growing from 0.08 in 2003 to 1.84 in 2010.
How an IoT system works
This system consists of sensors or devices which talk to the cloud through some kind of connectivity once the data gets to the cloud software processes it and then might decide to act such as sending an alert or automatically adjusting the sensor devices without the need for the user. If the user input is needed or if the user simply wants to check in on the system a user interface allows them to do so any adjustments or actions that the user makes and then sent in the opposite direction through the system, from the interface to the cloud and back to the sensors or devices to make some kind of change. The devices do most of the work without human intervention although people can interact with devices for instance to set them up give them instructions or access the data. The connectivity networking and communication protocols used with these web-enabled devices largely depend on the specific IoT applications deployed. IoT can also make use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to aid in making data collecting processes easier and more dynamic.
It helps people live and work smarter as well as gain complete control over their lives it is essential to a business or it provides businesses with a real-time look into how their systems work, and the performance of machines to supply chain and logistics operations. Enables companies to automate processes and reduce labor costs as well as offering transparency into consumer transactions.
The benefits of IoT to organizations
The internet of things has several benefits to organizations. some benefits are industry-specific, and some are applicable across various industries. To monitor their overall business processes, to improve the customer experience, to save time and money. To enhance employees’ productivity and integrate the adapted business models. the main benefit is to make better business decisions and generate more revenue.
It is most abundant in manufacturing transportation and utility organizations making use of sensors and other devices. And it has also found cases for organizations within the agriculture, infrastructure, and home automation industries. The Internet of Things can benefit farmers in agriculture by making their job easier. sensors can collect data on rainfall, temperature, humidity, and soil content that would help automate farming techniques.
Advantages of IoT
1- The improved communication between connected electronic devices and the ability to access information from anywhere at any time on any device. it enhanced data collection play information is easily accessible even if we are far away from our actual location and it is updated frequently in real-time.
2- To transfer data packets over a connected network saving time and money and automated tasks helping to improve the quality of a business service and reducing the need for human intervention.
3- The physical objects being connected and controlled digitally and centrally with wireless technology structure there is a huge amount of automation and control in the workings. Without human interference so the machines had communicated with each other providing faster and timely output.
4- The main advantage of IoT is saving money, if the cost of the tagging and monitoring machines are less compared with the amount of money saved then the reason for the Internet of Things being very widely adopted. The data to be communicated and shared between devices and then translated into our required way makes our systems efficient.
5- The main advantage is improvement in security if we have an interconnected system it can assist in the smarter control of homes and cities through mobile phones it enhances security and offers personal protection.
6- It is used in traffic systems like asset tracking delivery surveillance, traffic or transportation tracking, inventory control, individual order tracking, and customer management can be more cost-effective than the right tracking system using IoT technology.
Disadvantages of IoT
1-Privacy concern- This system provides critical personal data in full detail without the user’s active participation. Internet of Things devices is being used in more sensitive industries such as healthcare and finance. Information privacy laws are coming into effect globally two meaning that not only does it make good business sense to protect data but businesses are legally required to do so.
2-Security issues- This system is interconnected and communicates over networks so the system offers little control despite any security measures and it can lead to various kinds of network attacks.
3-Technical complexity-The designing, developing, maintaining, and enabling the extensive technology to IoT system is quite complicated. If they are providing essential data to another workflow or system they could negatively affect everything connected to it. Miss counting the number of swipes at the door is not a big deal if another device confuses temperature data with entry swipe data it can be catastrophic.
4-Time consuming and expensive- These devices often come with high time and money investment requirements there is a number of devices to be purchased and configured staff to install them others to integrate them into the network and support calls to the manufacturer for help.
IoT needs specific tools and technologies for its realization. Low-weight-efficient communication between sensing devices and interoperability between different communication mechanisms are critical problems in IoT. Even at the current state, the capabilities of IoT solutions are impressive, and their advantages are tempting. it is important to realize that the integration of IoT in an enterprise requires a lot of effort and skills to achieve those benefits without suffering from its drawbacks. This is a platform for teams that communicate electronically and share specific information and data with the world around them, combining physical and digital components to create new products.